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Hartstilstand

HARTSTILSTAND

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1. Oorzaken

- mechanisme van plotse dood: = dood binnen de 24h na de start van de symptomen.  Het is bij 50% van de patienten met cardiovasculair lijden de eerste presentatie van hun toestand. 
- overleving van CPR + ALS: 9 à 65% krijgt opnieuw circulatie.  1 à 20% verlaat ooit het ziekenhuis. Recidief arrest bij neurologisch intact overlevenden is 30% binnen het jaar en 60% binnen de 5 jaar!
- indeling van de oorzaken:
- acute coronaire ischaemie: in 50% de oorzaak
- primaire ritmestoornissen: electrische stoornissen congenitaal of verkregen, myocarditis of hypertrofische cardiomyopathie
- hartruptuur
- pericardtamponade
- metabole stoornissen
- niet cardiale oorzaken:
- vooral bij PEA (pulseless electrical activity) = EMD (electromechanische dissociatie)
- (omkeerbare) oorzaken: (4 H's en 4 T's)
- Hypoxie (R/ O2 toedienen)
- Hypovolemie (R/ IV colloïden en fysiologische oplossing)
- Hypo/Hyperkaliemie & metabole afwijkingen
- Hypothermie
- Toxiciteit (anti-aritmica, digoxine, betablokkers, calciumantagonisten, tricyclische antidepressiva, cocaine, heroine)
- Tensiepneumothorax (R/ naald 14-16G plaatsen midclaviculair + intercostaal 2, naald laten zitten, CPR, Thoraxdrain)
- Tamponade (R/ pericardpuntie)

- Thrombo-embolische & mechanische obstructie (longembolie)

 

2. Kliniek

- Bewustzijnsverlies
- ademhalingsstilstand (soms nog enkele minuten gasping)
- afwezigheid van pols
- soms voorafgegaan door thoracale pijn, ademnood, palpitaties, stuipen, shock, bewustzijnsveranderingen

 

3. Diagnostisch werkplan

- Quick look met paddles
- monitoring: bloeddruk, ritme, saturatie
- labo:
- CBC
- electrolyten
- ureum, creatinine
- hartenzymes (CK, CK-MB, troponine)
- bloedgassen.  Indien kandidaat voor thrombolyse beter een arteriele lijn plaatsen en zo weinig mogelijk prikken.
- medicatie concentratiebepaling (vb digoxine)
- toxicoscreening
- ECG
- Rx thorax:
- positie endotracheale tube
- pneumothorax
- cardiomegalie
- Echocardio
- vocht in pericard?
- wandmotiliteit

- klepfunctie

 

4. DD

Plots bewustzijnsverlies met pulsaties door
- syncope
- epilepsie
- CVA
- hypoglycemie
- luchtwegobstructie
- hoofdtrauma

- intoxicatie

 

 

Eerste opvang

- quick look met paddles en zo nodig defibrillatie
- ABC (CPR, intubatie)
- IV lijn
- monitoring
- ALS-schema ten velde

 

Specifieke behandelingen

behandeling in te stellen, afhankelijk van het ritme. Bradycardie, tachycardie
 
 
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